Ancient age
150,000 BC – the Iranian plateau was submerged.

150,000 BC – Paleolithic population in shelters on the Zagros mountains, matriarchal society. Arid phase that gives rise to the current country, the central sea dries up and the animals move to the plain followed by men.

7000 BC – Neolithic. Inhabited places along the river courses that die in the plain before reaching the sea, local Capannicole and agricultural cultures. Ancient matriarchy documented by Venus figurines and animal amulets. Burials made under the floor of the huts.

6th-5th mill BC – Siyalk tepe culture (Northern Iran). Tepe siyalk culture marks the transition from the Neolithic to the early Copper Age. Siyalk I (5500-5000 BC) circular huts, agriculture and early copper objects, reddish painted pottery in dark intertwining theme.

Siyalk II (5000-4000 BC) rectangular mud houses with burials under the floors, Turquoise workmanship. Siyalk III (4000-3100 BC) rectangular houses in adobe, turned and painted pottery.

Siyalk IV (3100-2900 BC) proto-urban center, Elamite port seals with symbols to document a first trade managed perhaps for the powerful Elamite Susa and with the Sumerians.

Siyalk V (2900-1800 BC) Elamite settlement with an ancient-eastern economy. Seals with offering hero gods and Sumerian inscriptions.

Early 3rd mill. BC – Mesopotamian influence with Sumerians. In the south, Elamites, Kassites and Gutei develop. Wars between the Mesopotamians and the Elamites, ruled by Semitic dynasties and conquerors of Susiana up to the Euphrates.

ElamIII – Semitic people in the Anshan Shushin region with Susa as its capital. They occupied Sumer for a long time. They were then defeated by Sargon and his son Naram Sin (2557-2520 BC)

II mill BC – Indo-European invasions, in the north they originate the Hittite empire, in the south they create the state of the Mitanni.

1792-1750 BC – Hsmmurabi of Babylon, Rejects the Elamites also weakened by the Kassite expansion.

1450-650 BC – Iron Age: development of painted ceramics including the famous “ornithomorphic pouring jars” painted with animal motifs or in gray ceramics

1200 BC – Ramses III rejects the “peoples of the sea” who settle in Syria and form the neo-Hittite empire.

1146 BC Nebuchadnezzar I of Babylon devastates Elam. Then the Babylonians and the Elamites allied themselves to resist the Assyrians.

844 BC – First mention of the Persians in the Assyrian texts.

728 BC – Deioce founds the kingdom of the Medes with Ecbatana as its capital and allies himself with Babylon against Assyria.
Deioce 728-675 BC
Fraorte 675-653
Scythian interregnum 653-625
Ciassare 625- 585
Astuage 585-550

721 BC – Sargon II defeats the Elamites

668-626 -Assurbanipal refuses to deliver some of the exiles to the Elamite King, it is still war and Elam is destroyed. Achaemenian is King of the Persians, he moves to the Ansan region and founds the Achaemenid state.

559-530 BC – Reign of Cyrus the Great, victory over King Astiage of the Medes, the Achaemenid Empire is born. In Isaiah 44-45 Cyrus is said by God “my shepherd and my chosen one”

Ciro Grande (Kurus) 559-530 BC
Cambyses II 530-522
Smerdis the Magician 522
Darius I the Great 522-486
Xerxes I 486-465
Artaxerxes I 465-425
Xerxes II 425-424
Darius II 423-404
Artaxerxes II 404-359
Artaxerxes III 359-339
Artaxerxes IV 338-336
Darius III codomanno 336-330

539 a. – Ciro takes Babylon – “Cylinder of Ciri” – human rights text
530-522 BC – consignment of Cambyses II against the psammetician of Egypt
522 BC – Empire of Darius the Great. The empire is divided into 20 satrapies linked by an effective postal system. Susa capital
497 BC Xerxes defeated by the Greeks in the theater
401 BC – Iyr the Younger marches against his brother Artaxerxes II
330. BC – Alexander the Great defeats Darius III and occupies the Empire
323 BC – Persia passes to Seleucus I Nikator
238 BC – Arsace I, wins the Seleucus II Callinic and founds the Parthian Empire
139 BC Mithridates I captures Demetrius II and dissolves the Seleucid kingdom
123-87 BC – Reign of Mithridates II, Armenian Cinquista and westward extension
53 BC – Crassus attacks the parts but is defeated by King Irode II
43 BC – Prince Pacoro, son of Orode II, Fights with the Caesarians of Tito Labieno
38 BC – Anthony attacks the parties but is rejected by Phraates IV
114-116 AD – Campaign of Trajan and conquest of Ctesiphon, Roman province of Mesopotamia
120 AD – Hadrian renounces the Persian
147 – Vologese IV peaceful Parthian Empire
161 – Antoninus Pius attacks the Parthians but is stopped by the plague
195 – War of severe seventh against Vologese V and loss of Ctesiphon
216 – Caracalla wins Artabanus IV
217 – Artabanus wins Macrino in Nisibis and forces the Romans to peace
224 AD – Ardashir I, Son of Papak,

Artabano IV wins and founds Impreso Sassanide
241-272 – Reign of Shapur I
245 – Beginning of the Prophet Mani
260 – Shapur defeats Valerian in Edessa and imprisons him
264 – Odenate of Palmyra defeats Shapur and besieges Ctesiphon
277- Condemnation and death of Mani
296 – Galerius, sent by Diocletian, wins Narses
309- 379 – Reign of Shapur II, wars with Constantius II and Julian
531- 579 – Reign of Chosroes I, new renaissance
632 – Death of Muhammad. The Prophet’s family is excluded
651- Yazdgerd III yields to the Arab invasion, then he is gone. The Iranian land nobility of the Dihgan originates from independent principals (Iranian interlude)
661 – Assassination of Ali – cousin and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad. Persia becomes Sunni but Shiite and Zoroastrian groups remain

Ardashi I 224-241
Shapur I 241-272
Hormoz I 272-273
Bahram I 273-276
Bahram II 276-293
Bahram III 293
Narses 293-302
Hormoz II 302-309
Shapur II 309-379
Ardeshir II 379-383
Shapur III 383-388
Bahram IV 388-399
Yazdgerd I 399-420
Bahram V 420-438
Yazdgerd II 438-457
Hormoz III 457-459
Piruz 457-484
Balash 484-488
Qobad I 488-496
Tamash 496-499
Kavadh I 499-531
Khosrau 531-579


680 – Battle of karbala against the second Umayyad Yazid: death of the Husayn son of Ali
750- The Abbasid Iranians win the Umayyad Syrians and establish the capital in Baghdad. Iranian families are benefited
819 – Caliph Abbsside al-Mamun moves the capital to Iran for a short time Merv, then grants Persia a partial autonomy under Gen. Tahir

(Eastern Principalities – Iranian Intermezzo)
820-827 Tahrids of Khorasan extend as far as Rey.
867-903 – Sacramids from Sistan to Khorasan, Afghanistan and India
842-999- Samànidi alla Transoxiana- Imposition of Shiism

(Western Principalities)

928-1077- Ziyaridi del Gurgan
913- Buydi Kurdi
999 – the Turk Mahmud of Gaznah, former Samanid Slave creates Iranian state
1037-1219 – Seljuk Turks spread to India
1180-1219 – Autonomous Iranian state of the Shah of Kwarezm
1219 – Invasion of Gengiz khan to Samarkand
1258 – Mongol invasion of Hulagu khan – Persia becomes an Ilkhanate (Partially autonomous province)
1295-Gazhan khan converts to Islam and rules from Tabriz
1335 – death of the last Ilkhan and end of Mongol rule
1380-1406- Invasion of Timur khan- Tamerlane
1500-1722- Safavids from the Shiite Azarbaijan
1500-1512 – Conquests of Ismail Shah. Arrest of the Ottomans
1588-1629 – Abbas I moves the capital to Isfahan, drives out the Uzbeks and occupies the Portuguese base on the Island of Hormoz. Diffusion of Shiism and fixing of the border with the Turks. Anti-Ottoman alliance with the Indian Mughals and literary diffusion with the poet Sa’eb of Tabrizi.
1722- Tsar Peter the Grand of Russia invades from the north and the Ottomans attack Isfahan. The Persians resist, then seek the help of the Afghans but their raids put an end to the Safavids.
1730-1747 – Nadir Shah wins Turks, Afghans and conquers northern India reaching Delhi from which he brings back the Peacock’s Torno. He founds an absolute state but religious clashes arise and is assassinated. The Empire fragments: India and Afghanistan pass to Ahmad Shah Durrani. Northern Iran to the Turkish Afshar dynasty with capital in Mash’had, South Iran to the Zand with capital Shiraz.
1795-1925- Kagiari from Turkey, the capital moved to Tehran. Crushed between Russian protectorates in the North and British in the East.
1925-1979- Pahlavi- Reza khan makes coup against Ahmad Ghagiar, deposed by the council in 1925. Reza adopts the name Pahlavi.
1926 – Reza khan pahlavi assumes the title of Shah and is crowned emperor.
1935 (March 22) The Shah Reza Pahlavi reintroduces the name Iran that is “Land of the Aryans”
1939 – World War: Iran declares itself neutral.
1941 – Soviets and British invade Iran declares neutral, sympathizing with Nazi Germany and deporting to South Africa and abdicating in favor of his son Mohammad Reza Pahlavi who in 1943 declares war on Germany.
1949. The name Persia returns.
1951 – Prime Minister Mosadeq, leader of the National Front, aims for the nationalization of oil, London-Tehran tug-of-war
1953 – British and Cua make coups d’etat against Mosadeq. The Shah flees to Rome then returns.
1963 – White Revolution, the Shah launches social and political reforms, Khomeini is exiled.
1971- Massive celebrations in Persepolis for the 2500th anniversary of the Persian monarchy.
1978 – Demonstration in Qom in support of Khomeini and harsh government repression. Demonstrations and repressions are intensifying.
1979 – Great demonstration in which 2 million people demand the return of Khomeini and the expulsion of the Shah who leaves the country (January 16) Khomeini returns to exile and elections are held to approve the Islamic Republic. Islamic rules begin to be imposed. On November 4th the American embassy is occupied in protest and they are taken

63 hostages.
1980 – Failed coup attempt organized by Iraqi-backed military. Beginning of the Iran-Iraq war
1988 – end of the war with Iraq
1989 – Death of Khomeini. Moderate Khamenei squeeze guide is appointed and lasts until today

La mia esperienza iraniana inizia nel settembre del 2017. Durante questi mesi ho conosciuto un Iran inedito, giovane e progressista, che vive combattendo non solo con restrizioni e censure, ma anche con rigidi stereotipi che arrivano dall’Occidente. Una realtà dinamica dove il fermento culturale è inarrestabile, immagine